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An aromatic plant whose greyish-green leaves are utilized as a culinary herb, belonging to southern europe and the mediterranean.

Other culinary herbs, like sage, rosemary and thyme, are belonging to mediterranean regions where the air is rather temperate and dry. [1]


Sage is an herb. There are lots of species of sage. The two most typical are common sage (salvia officinalis) and spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia).

Sage may assist with chemical imbalances in the brain that cause issues with memory and thinking abilities. It might likewise alter how the body uses insulin and sugar.

Individuals commonly utilize sage for memory and believing skills, high cholesterol, and signs of menopause. It is also utilized for discomfort after surgery, lung cancer, sore throat, sunburn, and many other conditions, but there is no good clinical proof to support these uses. [2]


Salvia officinalis has been utilized given that ancient times for fending off wicked, snakebites, increasing females’s fertility, and more. The romans described sage as the “holy herb,” and employed it in their spiritual routines. Theophrastus discussed 2 different sages, a wild undershrub he called sphakos, and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. Pliny the elder said the latter plant was called salvia by the romans, and used as a diuretic, a local anesthetic for the skin, a styptic, and for other uses. Charlemagne suggested the plant for growing in the early midlifes, and during the carolingian empire, it was cultivated in abbey gardens. Walafrid strabo described it in his poem hortulus as having a sweet fragrance and working for lots of human disorders– he returned to the greek root for the name and called it lelifagus.

The plant had a high reputation throughout the midlifes, with numerous phrases referring to its recovery residential or commercial properties and value. It was often called s. Salvatrix (sage the savior). Dioscorides, pliny, and galen all suggested sage as a diuretic, hemostatic, emmenagogue, and tonic. Le menagier de paris, in addition to suggesting cold sage soup and sage sauce for poultry, recommends infusion of sage for cleaning hands at table. John gerard’s herball (1597) states that sage “is singularly helpful for the head and brain, it quickeneth the senses and memory, strengtheneth the sinews, restoreth health to those that have the palsy, and taketh away shakey shivering of the members.” gervase markham’s the english huswife (1615) offers a dish for a tooth-powder of sage and salt. It appears in recipes for 4 thieves vinegar, a mix of herbs which was expected to ward off the afflict. In past centuries, it was likewise utilized for hair care, insect bites and wasp stings, anxious conditions, psychological conditions, oral preparations for swelling of the mouth, tongue and throat, and also to minimize fevers. [3]


Sage (salvia officinalis) is native to the mediterranean and naturalized throughout europe and the United States and Canada. Known as garden sage, meadow sage, and true sage, this pungent herb belongs to the lamiaceae, or mint, household. The genus name is taken from the latin salvare meaning “to save.” the specific name officinalis shows that sage was included on official lists of medicinal herbs. There are numerous species of sage, consisting of clary sage (s. Sclarea) called because of its conventional usage as an eyewash. Native americans utilized the roots and leaves of lyre-leafed sage (s. Lyrata l.), likewise called cancerweed, as a salve for sores and in a tea to treat colds and coughs. Another species, known as divine sage (s. Divinorum), a native of oaxaca, mexico, has actually been utilized for centuries by regional shamans to attain transformed states of awareness in healing rituals. There are many more garden varieties, consisting of red or purple sage (s. Officinalis purpurascens), which is valued especially for its medical purposes.

Sage grows completely sun and well-drained soils, growing wild in some locations. It is a durable evergreen shrub with a deep taproot and an erect root stalk that produces woody, square, slightly downy, branching stems that may reach a height of 4 ft (1.2 m). This familiar garden perennial has long, light-green leaf stalks that bear easy opposite lance- or oval-shaped leaves. The strong and pliable leaves are veined, with a velvet-like somewhat crinkled texture and may grow to 2 in (5.1 cm) long in some varieties. Leaf margins resemble a fine embroidery finish with rounded minutely toothed edges. They are a gray-green on the top and lighter on the underside. The entire plant is highly aromatic, with a familiar pungency. Fresh leaves are bitter to the taste. Sage blossoms in the middle of summer with little white, blue, or purple flowers. [4]


Standard requirements sage is a grows finest in a well draining pipes, rich, clay loams with a ph between 6.5 and 7.0. It needs to be planted completely sun, although some afternoon shade is endured. Sage plants require warm temperatures and sufficient sunlight in order to produce a high essential oil material in the leaves. Proliferation sage is typically propagated from seed, although both cuttings, departments and air layering is also successfully practiced. The planting website needs to be warm, dry and protected from wind. Seeds must be sown after all threat of frost has passed leaving 23 cm (9 in) between seeds. Fertilizer may be contributed to the soil prior to planting to help advancement. Plants must be thinned to a final spacing of 45 cm (18 in). General care and maintenance sage plants should be pruned in early spring to promote new development, or after flowering in the summertime. In addition to an application at planting, sage will gain from a side dressing of fertilizer 6 to 8 weeks after planting. Sage will end up being really woody within 3-4 years of planting and ought to be changed with new plants. Collecting sage is finest collected right before flowering when the important oil material of the leaves is greatest. Sage ought to be collected by cutting the leading 20 cm (8 in) of tender development with a sharp knife. Commercial fields may be harvested by trimming however the highest quality product is achieved by gathering just the leaves. [5]

Cooking sage types

The two main kinds of sage that are grown for their cooking uses include ‘berggarten ‘, or traditional german sage, and the ever-popular ‘broadleaf ‘. While many individuals choose to grow garden sage for cooking and its abundant flavor, broadleaf sage has a milder taste, making it more suitable for pickling or adding to meals and even cheese.

Garden sage is a sturdy perennial if you live in strength zones 5-8 in the united states. It’s also resistant to pests and diseases, so while you will need to get rid of small insects from the plant, it won’t require much work from you to keep it healthy.

Common sage

Also referred to as: cooking sage, garden sage.

Taxonomic name: salvia officinalis.

Common sage leaves

Common sage is a popular herb that is grown for both medical and culinary usages. It’s an easy-to-grow seasonal plant that can handle the majority of the harsher environments in the northern united states, as well as in colder areas.

It grows best in raised beds with clayey soils in full sun to partial shade. Make sure it has complete drainage. You ought to likewise try to find excellent air circulation around this plant to assist prevent bugs such as spider termites from destroying it or contaminating it with illness.

Broadleaf sage

Likewise known as: culinary sage.

Broadleaf sage

Taxonomic name: salvia nemorosa ‘spicy world’ a fantastic plant to contribute to your veggie garden if you like pairing fresh herbs with meals. The leaves can be utilized in both tasty meals or desserts. This range of sage is also an excellent choice if there are kids (or pets) in your house due to the fact that it has a milder taste than other types of sage. It likewise works well for marinading and flavoring oils, vinegars, butters and cheeses.

Golden sage

Taxonomic name: salvia officinalis ‘aurea’ and salvia officinialis ‘icterina’.

Golden sage

Golden sage has a less pungent taste than common garden sage, and usually has a small citrus flavor.

Golden sage does not fare extremely well in chillier climates and tends to be more sensitive to modifications in light or temperature level than other types of sage. These garden varieties tend to be more sensitive to other bugs and diseases also. However it is sturdy to about 20 degrees fahrenheit however can grow back from the roots if exposed to colder temperatures.

Russian sage

Taxonomic name: perovskia atriplicifolia.

Russian sage

Russian sage is a stunning and aromatic flowering plant, however it can likewise be grown for cooking functions. Native to russia, central asia and turkey, this seasonal herb is sturdy in usda zones 4 through 9 with a choice for zones 5 through 8. It has long flowering periods that encounter fall or winter and typically reseeds itself the following spring.

The colors of russian sage flowers and leaves are mostly tones of purple. As a perennial, they can mature to 2 feet high with 2-inch long leaves growing in opposite sets on the stem. The flowers are normally violet to pinkish or purplish but might likewise be white.

Herbalists consider this plant mildly astringent and frequently utilize it as a hair rinse for dry or brittle hair. It is likewise efficient in eliminating swelling of your mucus membranes, such as those found in the throat or mouth and nasal passages.

An infusion of russian sage has been used to treat colds, aching throats and coughs when added to beverages such as tea.

Italian sage

Likewise known as: italian aromatic sage.

Scientific name: salvia officinalis ‘italian’.

Italian sage

Italian sage has big violet flowers with grey leaves. This range of cooking sage isn’t frequently used for medicinal purposes, and it is an excellent choice if you want to grow it for decorative reasons. It matures to 2 feet tall with opposite, ovate leaves that are about 1 inch in length.

Greek sage

Also referred to as: salvia cypria.

Taxonomic name: salvia fruticosa.

Greek sage

Typical usages: this kind of sage is native to the mediterranean region and is utilized mainly for ornamental factors. It grows up to 3 feet high with slender stems and dark green leaves. Its blue-purple flowers are frequently utilized in bouquets and dried flower arrangements.

Greek sage is sturdy in usda zones 5 through 9 and chooses to grow in full sun. It is a member of the mint family, so it can self-sow if provided enough water.

Greek sage accounts for 50-95% ( of the dried sage sold in the United States and Canada, so to say it’s popular is an understatement.

Scarlet sage

Also referred to as: scarlet salvia.

Taxonomic name: salvia splendens.

Scarlet sage

An unique range of sage with dynamic red or purple flowers, this plant has a very fragrant fragrance that can be used to make a wide variety of organic products. The growing pointers are the most powerful part of the plant, but you can likewise harvest them for use in sachets or other aromatic items. You can even dry and squash the leaves to produce your own potpourri.

Plants will reach around 2 feet high and spread out into a thick bush with their traditional oval green leaves. Like numerous perennials, you ought to cut back on water throughout the cold weather when temperature levels drop below freezing.

Pineapple sage

Likewise called: sweet sage.

Scientific name: salvia elegans.

Pineapple sage

This range gets its name from the sweet smell it has when it blooms. Pineapple sage also grows well as an ornamental herb with small purple flowers and green leaves. You can utilize this variety to make both a tea and tincture or harvest the leaves for later use.

Common uses for this plant consist of assisting indigestion, reducing pain associated with menstrual cramps, calming symptoms of stress and anxiety and helping you get a peaceful night’s sleep.

Pineapple sage is durable in usda zones 5 through 9 with a preference for zones 7 through 8. It is a yearly flowering plant that can grow up to 4 feet tall and 2 feet wide. It has soft green leaves that are somewhat serrated, providing it an unique appearance when compared to other plants in the salvia genus.

Pineapple sage is popular for its fragrant purple flowers with yellow centers however likewise makes an appealing decorative plant due to its dark green foliage and low-growing stature. The flowers will appear from late summer season into fall or early winter season on this sturdy annual. They have a pineapple fragrance that brings in bees and butterflies while adding color to your garden beds throughout those months when lots of other flowering herbs stop working to do so.

The little flowers are densely compacted with their purplish-red petals radiating from a yellow center. The plant itself will mature to 4 feet high, however it can likewise spread out into a wider bush with some pruning and correct care.

White sage

Taxonomic name: salvia apiana.

White sage

White sage has silvery gray leaves and is typically used as the common “sage burning” sage. Belonging to the southwestern regions of the united states and mexico. It is generally dried for ceremonial usage, burning as a spot stick. White sage has a strong, pine-like aroma with a smokey finish. It is highly valued for ceremonial usage by numerous native people.

Many varieties of white sage are not advised for culinary use since they tend to have more of a burnt taste than other varieties. White sage is likewise really durable, and can be grown in zones five to nine.

Mealycup sage

Taxonomic name: salvia farinacea.

Mealycup sage

Mealycup sage is native to texas and the desert locations of new mexico. The leaves are blue-green or grey, with downy hairs beneath, and grow close together along the stems that can grow between 12 and 24 inches tall. Mealycup sage is also known as texas tarragon since it tastes like its french cousin when utilized in cooking. Herbalists use this plant to help relieve upset stomachs, decrease stress and deal with diarrhea.

The flowers on the mealycup sage are lilac-blue, white or pink relying on the range you choose. This durable seasonal grows best in usda zones 8 through 11 however will flourish in zone 6 if provided the correct amount of water. You can cut down on the amount you give it throughout the winter season when temperatures drop below freezing. Simply don’t permit the plant to wilt totally.

Mealycup sage need to be planted in a bright spot in either full or partial sun and watered regularly. However, this specific variety does not do well with overwatering– keep the soil slightly dry between watering sessions. This is specifically true if using a drip watering system– excessive water will kill your plant off rather quickly. If you use sprinklers, wait till after sunset so the leaves have time to fully dry before morning dew appears.

The seeds for mealycup sage are white and grow within pods that are usually around 1 inch.

Mexican bush sage

Taxonomic name: salvia leucantha.

Mexican bush sage

This variety of sage is native to mexico and main america. It grows between 2 and 3 feet tall and has actually deeply colored, dark green foliage. Mexican bush sage is often used as a border plant in the landscape due to its ability to grow on steep slopes and stand up to heat conditions with routine watering.

The small purple flowers flower from july through september on this sturdy perennial plant however you can also gather leaves for tea or drying when it flowers so the plant remains healthy.

You might find that pinch back your mexican bush sage every few years during early spring at around 10 inches tall if you choose it as just a decorative flower because they are incredibly big bushes once they get to a certain size.

Berggarten sage

Taxonomic name: artemisia berggardiana.

Berggarten sage

This range of sage is frequently used for decorative functions because of its appealing gray-green leaves. It grows between 1 and 2 ′ high with a spread of as much as 3 ′. As the name recommends, berggarten sage grows finest in a climate zone 7 or higher but will do alright in zones 5 through 9 if offered the correct amount of water– it doesn’t like to dry entirely!

The flowers bloom blue from mid-july into august on this long lasting seasonal plant, however you can likewise harvest fresh leaves throughout summer for usage in your cooking productions so the plant stays healthy. If you pinch the tips off of your berggarten sage every couple of years in early spring at about 8 inches high, you can encourage it to grow bushier and thicker.

Forest sage

Also known as: wood sage.

Scientific name: salvia nemorosa.

Woodland sage

Woodland sage is a perennial plant that grows to about 3 feet in height and has green leaves with purple markings. The plant can be utilized as a border for open woods or planted near taller plants. The fragrance of the blooms is said to attract bees, butterflies, and birds.

Woodland sage spreads by rhizomes, and while they do not cause any damage, they do grow on top of the ground. For this reason, woodlands sage is often grown in containers or raised beds. These plants can be grown in usda zones 4 through 8 and are relatively drought tolerant throughout the summer months.

Woodland sage is typically utilized for medical functions. It has actually been known to treat nervousness, throwing up, and diarrhea. The leaves are also used for teas in some cultures as a treatment for colds, coughs, and fevers.

It can be grown outdoors or as part of an indoor garden however is more frequently discovered growing outdoors near the woods or other gardens where it tends to flourish finest. This plant is finest grown from seed and it is necessary not to overwater or fertilize woodland sage plants. [6]

Advantages of sage

Sage is a staple herb in different cuisines around the world.

Its other names consist of common sage, garden sage and salvia officinalis. It comes from the mint household, together with other herbs like oregano, rosemary, basil and thyme.

Sage has a strong scent and earthy flavor, which is why it’s typically used in small amounts. Even so, it’s loaded with a variety of important nutrients and compounds.

Sage is also used as a natural cleaning agent, pesticide and ritual object in spiritual sage burning or smudging.

This green herb is readily available fresh, dried or in oil form– and has various health benefits.

Here are 12 surprising health advantages of sage.

High in numerous nutrients

Sage loads a healthy dose of vitamins and minerals.

One teaspoon (0.7 grams) of ground sage consists of:.

  • Calories: 2
  • Protein: 0.1 grams
  • Carbohydrates: 0.4 grams
  • Fat: 0.1 grams
  • Vitamin k: 10% of the
  • Reference daily consumption (rdi)
  • Iron: 1.1% of the rdi
  • Vitamin b6: 1.1% of the rdi
  • Calcium: 1% of the rdi
  • Manganese: 1% of the rdi

As you can see, a percentage of sage packs 10% of your day-to-day vitamin k needs (2trusted source).

Sage also contains small amounts of magnesium, zinc, copper and vitamins a, c and e.

What’s more, this fragrant spice homes caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid, ellagic acid and rutin– all of which contribute in its beneficial health results.

Since it’s consumed in tiny quantities, sage offers just tiny quantities of carbs, calories, protein and fiber.

Summary sage is

Rich in nutrients– specifically vitamin k– despite being low in calories. One.

Teaspoon (0.7 grams) boasts 10% of your day-to-day vitamin k needs.

Filled with antioxidants

Anti-oxidants are molecules that help fortify your body’s defenses, neutralizing possibly harmful complimentary radicals that are connected to persistent illness.

Sage includes over 160 distinct polyphenols, which are plant-based chemical substances that serve as anti-oxidants in your body.

Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, ellagic acid and rutin– all found in sage– are connected to impressive health advantages, such as a lower threat of cancer and enhanced brain function and memory.

One study discovered that drinking 1 cup (240 ml) of sage tea twice daily considerably increased antioxidant defenses. It likewise reduced both total cholesterol and “bad” ldl cholesterol, along with raised “excellent” hdl cholesterol.

Summary sage is

Packed with anti-oxidants that are connected to a number of health advantages, consisting of.

Improved brain function and lower cancer danger.

May assistance oral health

Sage has antimicrobial results, which can reduce the effects of microorganisms that promote oral plaque.

In one study, a sage-based mouthwash was shown to effectively eliminate the streptococcus mutans germs, which is notorious for causing dental cavities.

In a test-tube research study, a sage-based vital oil was shown to kill and stop the spread of yeast albicans, a fungi that might also cause cavities.

One review kept in mind that sage might treat throat infections, dental abscesses, infected gums and mouth ulcers. However, more human research is required to make thorough suggestions.

Summary sage

Has antimicrobial homes that may eliminate microbes that motivate the development.

Of dental plaque.

May ease menopause symptoms

Throughout menopause, your body experiences a natural decline in the hormonal agent estrogen. This can trigger a wide variety of unpleasant signs.

Signs include hot flashes, extreme sweating, vaginal dryness and irritability.

Common sage was generally utilized to minimize menopause symptoms.

It’s believed that substances in sage have estrogen-like residential or commercial properties, permitting them to bind to certain receptors in your brain to assist enhance memory and deal with hot flashes and extreme sweating.

In one research study, everyday use of a sage supplement considerably lowered the number and strength of hot flashes over 8 weeks.

Summary sage

May help in reducing the intensity and frequency of menopause signs, such as hot

Flashes and irritation.

May reduce blood glucose levels

The leaves of typical sage have actually been used generally as a solution versus diabetes.

Human and animal research study suggests that it might assist lower blood sugar level levels.

In one research study, sage extract decreased blood glucose levels in rats with type 1 diabetes by triggering a specific receptor. When this receptor is activated, it can assist clear excess complimentary fats in the blood, which in turn enhances insulin level of sensitivity.

Another study in mice with type 2 diabetes found that sage tea acts like metformin– a drug recommended to handle blood sugar in individuals with the very same disease.

In people, sage leaf extract has actually been revealed to lower blood glucose and improve insulin sensitivity with a comparable effect as rosiglitazone, another anti-diabetes drugs.

Nevertheless, there is still insufficient evidence to suggest sage as a diabetes treatment. More human research is needed.

Summary while

Sage might decrease blood sugar levels by increasing insulin sensitivity, more human research is needed.

May support memory and brain health

Sage can help support your brain and memory in several ways

For one, it’s loaded with substances that can act as anti-oxidants, which have actually been revealed to buffer your brain’s defense system.

It also appears to halt the breakdown of the chemical messenger acetylcholine (ach), which has a role in memory. Ach levels appear to fall in alzheimer’s disease.

In one research study, 39 individuals with moderate to moderate alzheimer’s disease consumed either 60 drops (2 ml) of a sage extract supplement or a placebo daily for 4 months.

Those taking the sage extract performed much better on tests that determined memory, analytical, reasoning and other cognitive capabilities.

In healthy grownups, sage was revealed to enhance memory in low doses. Greater dosages also elevated state of mind and increased awareness, peace and contentedness.

In both younger and older grownups, sage appears to improve memory and brain function.

Summary research studies

Program that sage may enhance memory, brain function and signs of alzheimer’s.


May lower ‘bad’ ldl cholesterol

Every minute, more than someone in the us passes away from heart problem.

High “bad” ldl cholesterol is a key heart problem risk element, affecting one in 3 americans.

Sage may assist lower “bad” ldl cholesterol, which can develop in your arteries and possibly trigger damage.

In one study, consuming sage tea twice daily reduced “bad” ldl cholesterol and overall blood cholesterol while raising “excellent” hdl cholesterol after just 2 weeks.

Several other human research studies show a comparable effect with sage extract.

Summary intake

Of sage and sage items have actually been revealed to reduce “bad” ldl cholesterol levels.

And raise “excellent” hdl cholesterol levels.

May secure versus particular cancers

Cancer is a leading cause of death in which cells grow unusually.

Interestingly, animal and test-tube research studies demonstrate that sage might battle particular kinds of cancer, including those of the mouth, colon, liver, cervix, breast, skin and kidney.

In these studies, sage extracts not only suppress the growth of cancer cells however likewise promote cell death.

While this research study is encouraging, human studies are needed to identify whether sage works at fighting cancer in human beings.

Summary test-tube

And animal research suggest that sage may battle specific cancer cells, however.

Human research is required.

Other prospective health benefits

Sage and its substances are connected to a number of other health advantages.

Nevertheless, these advantages have not been thoroughly investigated.

May ease diarrhea: fresh sage is a.

Traditional remedy for diarrhea. Test-tube and animal research studies found that.

It includes compounds that might relieve diarrhea by relaxing your diet plan.

May support bone health: vitamin k,

Which sage offers in big quantities, contributes in bone health. A deficiency in this vitamin.

Is connected to bone thinning and fractures.

May combat skin aging: a number of test-tube

Research studies suggest that sage substances might assist fight signs of aging, such as wrinkles.

Summary sage

Has been connected to other prospective health benefits, such as easing diarrhea,.

Supporting bone health and combatting skin aging.

Easy to add to your diet plan

Sage can be found in several types and can be utilized in a range of ways.

Fresh sage leaves have a strong fragrant taste and are best used sparingly in dishes.

Here are some methods you can add fresh sage to your diet plan:.

  • Sprinkle as a garnish on soups.
  • Mix into a stuffing in roast meals.
  • Integrate chopped entrusts butter to make sage butter.
  • Add chopped leaves to tomato sauce.
  • Serve it with eggs in an omelet.

Dried sage is frequently chosen by cooks and comes ground, rubbed or in entire leaves.

Here are some ways you can utilize dried sage:.

  • As a rub for meats.
  • As a flavoring for roasted veggies.
  • Combined with mashed potatoes or squash for earthy taste.

You can likewise acquire sage products, such as sage tea and sage extract supplements.

Summary sage is

Exceptionally versatile and simple to contribute to soups, stews and baked dishes. It’s.

Offered fresh, dried or ground. [7]

Possible negative effects

When consumed as a spice in food, sage is thought about safe for adults and children.

Health care professionals generally agree that:.

Sage needs to be safe when taken in medical quantities for no greater than 2 months.

Sage may be hazardous when it’s taken in high doses or for a very long time. Some species of sage, including typical sage (salvia officinalis), include a chemical called thujone. Excessive thujone can trigger seizures and damage the liver and nervous system.

Sage applied to the skin is perhaps safe when used for up to one week.

Sage important oil, breathed in as aromatherapy, need to be safe. Like some other essential oils, sage oil can be toxic and need to never be taken orally. Even when applied topically, the oil needs to be watered down or it might trigger rash or irritation.

Sage can likewise make anticonvulsant drugs less reliable if utilized in excess, consisting of phenobarbital, mysoline (primidone), depakote (valproic acid), neurontin (gabapentin), tegretol (carbamazepine), and dilantin (phenytoin).

The extreme use of sage if you’re taking diabetes medications can set off a possibly serious drop in blood sugar level, causing hypoglycemia. If you use sage pills or extracts, never ever take in more than the recommended dosage on the item label. Sage medications ought to be used with caution in individuals with impaired kidney function.

Tell your doctor about any medications you’re taking, consisting of herbal remedies like sage, so that you’re totally familiar with the possible interactions and dangers. [8]


Dosages of 300 and 600 mg of dried sage leaf have been examined in mood and cognitive performance studies. A standardized s. Officinalis ethanolic extract at a dosage of 333 mg was utilized in a study assessing its results on memory and attention in healthy older volunteers. A common dosage has actually been referred to as 4 to 6 g/day of the sage leaf. [9]


Drying medications (anticholinergic drugs) interaction rating: moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health company.

Common sage (salvia officinalis) and spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia) may increase levels of specific chemicals in the body that operate in the brain, heart, and in other places. Some drying medications called “anticholinergic drugs” can likewise these exact same chemicals, but in a different way. These drying medications might decrease the effects of these sage species, and these sage species may decrease the results of drying medications.

A few of these drying medications consist of atropine, scopolamine, some medications used for allergic reactions (antihistamines), and some medications used for depression (antidepressants).

Estrogens interaction score: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health provider.

Geraniol, a chemical in spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia), may have some of the very same results as estrogen. However, geraniol discovered in spanish sage isn’t as strong as estrogen pills. Taking spanish sage together with estrogen tablets might decrease the impacts of estrogen tablets.

Some estrogen tablets consist of conjugated equine estrogens (premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.

Medications altered by the liver (cytochrome p450 2c19 (cyp2c19) substrates) interaction score: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health supplier.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Sage may reduce how rapidly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking sage along with some medications that are broken down by the liver might increase the results and negative effects of some medications. Prior to taking sage as a medicine, talk with your doctor if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications that are altered by the liver include omeprazole (prilosec), lansoprazole (prevacid), and pantoprazole (protonix); diazepam (valium); carisoprodol (soma); nelfinavir (viracept); and others.

Medications changed by the liver (cytochrome p450 2c9 (cyp2c9) substrates) interaction rating: moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health company.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Sage might reduce how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking sage together with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the impacts and side effects of some medications. Before taking sage as a medication, speak with your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are altered by the liver.

Some medications that are changed by the liver consist of diclofenac (cataflam, voltaren), ibuprofen (motrin), meloxicam (mobic), and piroxicam (feldene); celecoxib (celebrex); amitriptyline (elavil); warfarin (coumadin); glipizide (glucotrol); losartan (cozaar); and others.

Medications altered by the liver (cytochrome p450 2d6 (cyp2d6) substrates) interaction score: moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health supplier.

Some medications are altered and broken down by the liver. Sage might reduce how rapidly the body breaks down some medications. Taking sage along with some medications that are altered by the liver can increase the results and negative effects of your medication. Before taking sage as a medication, talk with your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are altered by the liver.

Some medications that are altered by the body consist of amitriptyline (elavil), codeine, desipramine (norpramin), flecainide (tambocor), fluoxetine (prozac), ondansetron (zofran), tramadol (ultram), and others.

Medications changed by the liver (cytochrome p450 2e1 (cyp2e1) substrates) interaction score: moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are altered and broken down by the liver. Typical sage might increase how rapidly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking common sage along with some medications that are changed by the liver may reduce the results and adverse effects of your medication. Prior to taking common sage as a medication, speak with your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications that are altered by the liver consist of acetaminophen, chlorzoxazone (parafon forte), ethanol, theophylline, and drugs used for anesthesia during surgical treatment such as enflurane (ethrane), halothane (fluothane), isoflurane (forane), and methoxyflurane (penthrane).

Medications altered by the liver (cytochrome p450 3a4 (cyp3a4) substrates) interaction score: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health supplier.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Sage may decrease how rapidly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking sage along with some medications that are broken down by the liver may increase the effects and adverse effects of these medications. Before taking sage as a medication, talk with your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Medications that might be affected consist of specific heart medications called calcium channel blockers (diltiazem, nicardipine, verapamil), cancer drugs (etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine), fungus-fighting drugs (ketoconazole, itraconazole), glucocorticoids, alfentanil (alfenta), cisapride (propulsid), fentanyl (sublimaze), lidocaine (xylocaine), losartan (cozaar), midazolam (versed), and others.

Medications for alzheimer’s disease (acetylcholinesterase (ache) inhibitors) interaction rating: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health supplier.

Common sage (salvia officinalis) and spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia) may increase specific chemicals in the brain, heart, and in other places in the body. Some medications used for alzheimer’s illness likewise impact these chemicals. Taking these species of sage along with medications for alzheimer’s disease might increase effects and side effects of medications used for alzheimer’s illness.

Medications for diabetes (antidiabetes drugs) interaction rating: moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health provider.

Sage might decrease blood glucose. Diabetes medications are likewise utilized to lower blood sugar level. Taking sage along with diabetes medications may cause your blood glucose to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar carefully. The dosage of your diabetes medication might require to be altered.

Some medications utilized for diabetes include glimepiride (amaryl), glyburide (diabeta, glynase prestab, micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (actos), rosiglitazone (avandia), chlorpropamide (diabinese), glipizide (glucotrol), tolbutamide (orinase), and others.

Medications for hypertension (antihypertensive drugs) interaction score: moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health supplier.

Typical sage (salvia officinalis) appears to reduce blood pressure. Taking common sage along with medications for high blood pressure may trigger your high blood pressure to go too low. On the other hand, spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia) may increase blood pressure. Taking spanish sage together with medications for high blood pressure may minimize the impacts of these medications.

Some medications for hypertension consist of captopril (capoten), enalapril (vasotec), losartan (cozaar), valsartan (diovan), diltiazem (cardizem), amlodipine (norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (hydrodiuril), furosemide (lasix), and many others.

Medications moved by pumps in cells (p-glycoprotein substrates) interaction rating: moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health service provider.

Some medications are moved by pumps into cells. Typical sage (salvia officinalis) may make these pumps less active and increase just how much of some medications get taken in by the body. This might increase the negative effects of some medications.

Some medications that are moved by these pumps include etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, ketoconazole, itraconazole, amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, cimetidine, ranitidine, diltiazem, verapamil, corticosteroids, erythromycin, cisapride (propulsid), fexofenadine (allegra), cyclosporine, loperamide (imodium), quinidine, and others.

Medications used to prevent seizures (anticonvulsants) interaction score: moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health company.

Medications used to prevent seizures impact chemicals in the brain. Sage may likewise impact chemicals in the brain. By affecting chemicals in the brain, sage might reduce the effectiveness of medications used to prevent seizures.

Some medications used to prevent seizures include phenobarbital, primidone (mysoline), valproic acid (depakene), gabapentin (neurontin), carbamazepine (tegretol), phenytoin (dilantin), and others.

Sedative medications (benzodiazepines) interaction rating: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health company.

Common sage (salvia officinalis) might trigger sleepiness and sleepiness. Medications that trigger sleepiness and sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking common sage along with sedative medications might trigger too much drowsiness.

Some of these sedative medications consist of clonazepam (klonopin), diazepam (valium), lorazepam (ativan), and others.

Sedative medications (cns depressants) interaction rating: moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health company.

Sage might trigger drowsiness and sleepiness. Medications that triggers sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking sage in addition to sedative medications may cause excessive sleepiness.

Some sedative medications consist of clonazepam (klonopin), lorazepam (ativan), phenobarbital (donnatal), zolpidem (ambien), and others.

Different medications used for glaucoma, alzheimer’s disease, and other conditions (cholinergic drugs) interaction score: moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health service provider.

Typical sage (salvia officinalis) and spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia) may increase specific chemicals in the brain, heart, and elsewhere in the body. Some medications used for glaucoma, alzheimer’s illness, and other conditions likewise impact these chemicals. Taking these species of sage with these medications may increase the possibility of adverse effects.

Some of these medications utilized for glaucoma, alzheimer’s illness, and other conditions consist of pilocarpine (pilocar and others), donepezil (aricept), tacrine (cognex), and others. [10]


Contraindicated in:.

  • Hypersensitivity;
  • Pregnancy and lactation.

Usage cautiously in:.

  • Seizure disorders;
  • High blood pressure;
  • Diabetes [11]


The goal of this paper is to examine the current developments in the expedition of sage (salvia species) as phytotherapy and to illustrate its possible as a restorative agent. Salvia species may represent a natural, safe, and efficient treatment for many illness and their signs. In recent decades, with the boost in medicinal knowledge about the helpful results of sage, specifically s. Officinalis, these organic medicines with antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, totally free radical scavenging, and antitumor activities have actually been discovered to be extremely efficient in the advancement of unique natural drugs to prevent, control, and deal with numerous minor health issue along with more severe and complex illness such as diabetes, alzheimer’s, and cancer. It must be remembered that clinicians need to remain cautious until more guaranteed studies demonstrate the security, quality, and effectiveness of s. Officinalis. For these reasons, comprehensive pharmacological and chemical experiments, together with human metabolic research studies should be the focus of our future studies, and more potential of s. Officinalis needs to be employed in brand-new therapeutic drugs and supply a basis for future research on the application of medical plants. [12]


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