Vitamin K

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Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that can be found in two forms. The primary type is called phylloquinone, found in green leafy vegetables like collard greens, kale, and spinach. The other type, menaquinones, are found in some animal foods and fermented foods. Menaquinones can also be produced by germs in the human body.

Vitamin K assists to make numerous proteins that are needed for blood clot and the building of bones. Prothrombin is a vitamin K-dependent protein directly involved with blood clot. Osteocalcin is another protein that requires vitamin K to produce healthy bone tissue.

Vitamin K is found throughout the body consisting of the liver, brain, heart, pancreas, and bone. It is broken down really quickly and excreted in urine or stool. Because of this, it hardly ever reaches harmful levels in the body even with high intakes, as may in some cases accompany other fat-soluble vitamins. [1]

Table of Contents

Why do individuals take vitamin K?

Low levels of vitamin K can raise the threat of unrestrained bleeding. While vitamin K shortages are rare in grownups, they are very common in newborn infants. A single injection of vitamin K for babies is basic. Vitamin K is likewise utilized to neutralize an overdose of the blood thinner Coumadin.

While vitamin K deficiencies are uncommon, you might be at higher danger if you:.

Have a disease that affects absorption in the digestive system, such as Crohn’s disease or active celiac illness.

  • Take drugs that hinder vitamin K absorption
  • Are seriously malnourished
  • Consume alcohol heavily
  • In these cases, a health care service provider might suggest vitamin K supplements.

Uses of vitamin K for cancer, for the signs of early morning illness, for the elimination of spider veins, and for other conditions are unverified. Learn more about vitamins k2 and d3 along with which foods pack the greatest quantity. [2]

Summary

Vitamin K is available in a variety of various kinds, called vitamers. Kinds of vitamin K are either phylloquinones (vitamin K1) or menaquinones (vitamin K2). There are various vitamers within the vitamin K2 class, abbreviated as MK-x.

The minimum efficient dosage for phylloquinone (vitamin K1) is 50mcg, which is enough to please the Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) for vitamin K. The optimum dosage for vitamin K1 is 1,000 mcg.

The minimum effective dosage for short chain menaquinones (MK-4) is 1,500 mcg. Dosages of up to 45mg (45,000 mcg) have been safely used in a superloading dosing protocol.

The minimum efficient dosage for longer chain menaquinones (MK-7, MK-8, and MK-9) is in between 90-360mcg. Additional research is needed to identify the maximum reliable dosage for MK-7.

A topical application of vitamin K must contain a minimum of 5% phylloquinone.

Vitamin K ought to be supplemented together with fatty acids, even if the vitamin is originating from a plant-based source, so consider taking vitamin K at meal time. Microwaving plant-based sources of vitamin K will increase the absorption rate of the vitamin. [3]

Which foods consist of vitamin K?

Vitamin K is a group of substances divided into two groups– K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinone).

Vitamin K1, the most common form, is mainly found in plant foods, especially dark leafy greens. K2, on the other hand, is only discovered in animal foods and fermented plant foods, such as natto.

The following 20 foods are good sources of vitamin K.

1. Kale (cooked)– 443% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 531 mcg (443% of the DV).

100 grams: 817 mcg (681% of the DV).

2. Mustard greens (cooked)– 346% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 415 mcg (346% of the DV).

100 grams: 593 mcg (494% of the DV).

3. Swiss chard (raw)– 332% of the DV per serving

1 leaf: 398 mcg (332% of the DV).

100 grams: 830 mcg (692% of the DV).

4. Collard greens (prepared)– 322% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 386 mcg (322% of the DV).

100 grams: 407 mcg (339% of the DV).

5. Natto– 261% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 313 mcg (261% of the DV).

100 grams: 1,103 mcg (920% of the DV).

6. Spinach (raw)– 121% of the DV per serving

1 cup: 145 mcg (121% of the DV).

100 grams: 483 mcg (402% of the DV).

7. Broccoli (cooked)– 92% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 110 mcg (92% of the DV).

100 grams: 141 mcg (118% of the DV).

8. Brussels sprouts (prepared)– 91% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 109 mcg (91% of the DV).

100 grams: 140 mcg (117% of the DV).

9. Beef liver– 60% of the DV per serving

1 piece: 72 mcg (60% of the DV).

100 grams: 106 mcg (88% of the DV).

10. Pork chops– 49% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 59 mcg (49% of the DV).

100 grams: 69 mcg (57% of the DV).

11. Chicken– 43% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 51 mcg (43% of the DV).

100 grams: 60 mcg (50% of the DV).

12. Goose liver paste– 40% of the DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 48 mcg (40% of the DV).

100 grams: 369 mcg (308% of the DV).

13. Green beans (cooked)– 25% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 30 mcg (25% of the DV).

100 grams: 48 mcg (40% of the DV).

14. Prunes– 24% of the DV per serving

5 pieces: 28 mcg (24% of the DV).

100 grams: 60 mcg (50% of the DV).

15. Kiwi– 23% of the DV per serving

1 fruit: 28 mcg (23% of the DV).

100 grams: 40 mcg (34% of the DV).

16. Soybean oil– 21% of the DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 25 mcg (21% of the DV).

100 grams: 184 mcg (153% of the DV).

17. Hard cheeses– 20% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 25 mcg (20% of the DV).

100 grams: 87 mcg (72% of the DV).

18. Avocado– 18% of the DV per serving

Half of a fruit, medium: 21 mcg (18% of the DV).

100 grams: 21 mcg (18% of the DV).

19. Green peas (cooked)– 17% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 21 mcg (17% of the DV).

100 grams: 26 mcg (22% of the DV).

20. Soft cheeses– 14% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 17 mcg (14% of the DV).

100 grams: 59 mcg (49% of the DV).

3 more veggies high in vitamin K

The very best sources of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) are dark, leafy green vegetables. In fact, the prefix “phyllo” in this vitamin’s name refers to leaves.

1. Beet greens (cooked)– 290% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 349 mcg (290% of the DV).

100 grams: 484 mcg (403% of the DV).

2. Parsley (fresh)– 137% of the DV per serving

1 sprig: 164 mcg (137% of the DV).

100 grams: 1,640 mcg (1,367% of the DV).

3. Cabbage (prepared)– 68% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 82 mcg (68% of the DV).

100 grams: 109 mcg (91% of the DV).

6 more meat items high in vitamin K

Fatty meats and liver are outstanding sources of vitamin K2, though the content varies by the animal’s diet plan and may vary between areas or producers. Remember that research study on the vitamin K2 material of animal foods is incomplete.

1. Bacon– 25% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 30 mcg (25% of the DV).

100 grams: 35 mcg (29% of the DV).

2. Ground beef– 7% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 8 mcg (7% of the DV).

100 grams: 9.4 mcg (8% of the DV).

3. Pork liver– 6% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 6.6 mcg (6% of the DV).

100 grams: 7.8 mcg (7% of the DV).

4. Duck breast– 4% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 4.7 mcg (4% of the DV).

100 grams: 5.5 mcg (5% of the DV).

5. Beef kidneys– 4% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 4.9 mcg (4% of the DV).

100 grams: 5.7 mcg (5% of the DV).

6. Chicken liver– 3% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 3.6 mcg (3% of the DV).

100 grams: 13 mcg (11% of the DV).

9 more dairy foods and eggs high in vitamin K

Dairy foods and eggs are good sources of vitamin K2.

Like meat, their vitamin material depends upon the animal’s diet plan, and specific worths might differ by region or manufacturer.

1. Jarlsberg cheese– 19% of the DV per serving

1 piece: 22 mcg (19% of the DV).

100 grams: 80 mcg (66% of the DV).

2. Soft cheeses– 14% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 17 mcg (14% of the DV).

100 grams: 59 mcg (49% of the DV).

3. Edam cheese– 11% of the DV per serving

1 slice: 13 mcg (11% of the DV).

100 grams: 49 mcg (41% of the DV).

4. Blue cheese– 9% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 10 mcg (9% of the DV).

100 grams: 36 mcg (30% of the DV).

5. Egg yolk– 5% of the DV per serving

1 large: 5.8 mcg (5% of the DV).

100 grams: 34 mcg (29% of the DV).

6. Cheddar– 3% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 3.7 mcg (3% of the DV).

100 grams: 13 mcg (11% of the DV).

7. Entire milk– 3% of the DV per serving

1 cup: 3.2 mcg (3% of the DV).

100 grams: 1.3 mcg (1% of the DV).

8. Butter– 2% of the DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 3 mcg (2% of the DV).

100 grams: 21 mcg (18% of the DV).

9. Cream– 2% of the DV per serving

2 tablespoons: 2.7 mcg (2% of the DV).

100 grams: 9 mcg (8% of the DV).

7 more fruits high in vitamin K

Fruits usually do not consist of as much vitamin K1 as leafy green veggies, however a few supply decent quantities.

1. Blackberries– 12% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 14 mcg (12% of the DV).

100 grams: 20 mcg (17% of the DV).

2. Blueberries– 12% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 14 mcg (12% of the DV).

100 grams: 19 mcg (16% of the DV).

3. Pomegranate– 12% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 14 mcg (12% of the DV).

100 grams: 16 mcg (14% of the DV).

4. Figs (dried)– 6% of the DV per serving

5 pieces: 6.6 mcg (6% of the DV).

100 grams: 16 mcg (13% of the DV).

5. Tomatoes (sun-dried)– 4% of the DV per serving

5 pieces: 4.3 mcg (4% of the DV).

100 grams: 43 mcg (36% of the DV).

6. Grapes– 3% of the DV per serving

10 grapes: 3.5 mcg (3% of the DV).

100 grams: 15 mcg (12% of the DV).

7. Red currants– 3% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 3.1 mcg (3% of the DV).

100 grams: 11 mcg (9% of the DV).

8 more nuts and beans high in vitamin K

Some legumes and nuts supply decent quantities of vitamin K1 but typically much less than leafy greens.

1. Soybeans (prepared)– 13% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 16 mcg (13% of the DV).

100 grams: 33 mcg (28% of the DV).

2. Grown mung beans (prepared)– 12% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 14 mcg (12% of the DV).

100 grams: 23 mcg (19% of the DV).

3. Cashews– 8% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 9.7 mcg (8% of the DV).

100 grams: 34 mcg (28% of the DV).

4. Red kidney beans (prepared)– 6% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 7.4 mcg (6% of the DV).

100 grams: 8.4 mcg (7% of the DV).

5. Hazelnuts– 3% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 4 mcg (3% of the DV).

100 grams: 14 mcg (12% of the DV).

6. Pine nuts– 1% of the DV per serving

10 nuts: 0.9 mcg (1% of the DV).

100 grams: 54 mcg (45% of the DV).

7. Pecans– 1% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 1 mcg (1% of the DV).

100 grams: 3.5 mcg (3% of the DV).

8. Walnuts– 1% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 0.8 mcg (1% of the DV).

100 grams: 2.7 mcg (2% of the DV) [4]

Chemistry

Vitamin K and its derivatives include a 2-methyl-1,4- naphthoquinone nucleus with a lipophilic side chain (figure 1). The structure is similar to warfarin and other coumarin-like anticoagulants, which function as vitamin K villains. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) has a phytyl side chain. Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) has a number of forms, each with an isoprenoid side chain, designated MK-4 (or menatetrenone) through MK-13 according to the length of the side chain. The most common kind of menaquinone has four residues (MK-4).

Metabolic process

Vitamin K absorption needs undamaged pancreatic and biliary function and fat absorptive systems. Dietary vitamin K is protein-bound and is liberated by the proteolytic action of pancreatic enzymes in the small intestine. Bile salts then solubilize vitamin K into mixed micelles for absorption into enterocytes, where it is integrated into chylomicrons, thereby facilitating absorption into the intestinal lymphatics and portal circulation for transportation to the liver. In the liver it is repackaged into extremely low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). It flows in small quantities bound to lipoprotein.

Vitamin K: 5 scientifically proven benefits

Promotes blood clotting

You probably consider blood cells or platelets when clotting is gone over, however vitamin K is in fact necessary to this process that keeps you from excessive bleeding at even the tiniest of injuries.

K plays an essential function in the production of pro-blood clotting proteins called elements II (prothrombin), VII, IX, and X, and anticoagulant (anti-blood clotting) proteins known as proteins C, S, and Z.

However even though this procedure is necessary, some people clot too easily. Some blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin (brand Coumadin), work by annoying the action of vitamin K.

Because of this, it is incredibly important that individuals on warfarin keep their vitamin K levels steady. That indicates seeing their vitamin K consumption throughout the time they’re taking warfarin and getting routine blood checks done.

Prevent osteoporosis and assistance strong bones

But wait, isn’t that calcium and vitamin D? That’s the Destiny’s Kid scenario at play. There are actually vitamin K-dependent proteins required for correct bone health.

This fat-soluble vitamin has to be present for an enzyme called gamma-glutamyl carboxylase to make the protein osteocalcin work, through a procedure called carboxylation, which is needed for bone growth (Beulens, 2013).

Regardless of its crucial role in controling bone metabolism, it’s unclear whether vitamin K can reduce the risk of bone fractures. Past research study has suggested that getting enough vitamin K can assist prevent bone loss and reduce hip fractures in older men and women (Hamidi, 2013).

Bone health

And research study done specifically on postmenopausal women with osteoporosis has actually revealed potential take advantage of K2 supplements. However a meta-analysis found that vitamin K may assist with bone mineral density in some physical places, but not others (Fang, 2011; Iwamoto, 2014).

More work requirements to be done to clarify the relationship and see if supplementing with the Ks might help prevent fractures, especially those at the hip.

Might improve memory in older grownups

Vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDP) that require the intake of vitamin K to work effectively do not just impact your bone modeling, however.

The VKDPs not connected with bone growth or blood clot are included with the metabolic process of sphingolipids, a class of lipids commonly discovered in brain cell membranes that are involved with cellular events.

Modifications in sphingolipid metabolism have actually been linked with not only age-related cognitive decline however also neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer’s (Ferland, 2012).

Current research study suggests that vitamin K antagonists, which are utilized as anticoagulants, might have an unfavorable result on visual memory, spoken fluency, and brain volume. However it doesn’t appear to go in just one instructions (Alisi, 2019).

Greater vitamin K levels, specifically phylloquinone (K1), are associated with enhanced spoken episodic memory, though no difference was observed with non-verbal episodic memory (Presse, 2013).

Keep high blood pressure down

Getting a sufficient consumption of vitamin K might also be essential to your heart health because it might be able to assist prevent hypertension (abnormally hypertension) and lower your threat of heart disease (more on that in a second).

Low vitamin D and K status have been connected to hypertension with increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Like D, vitamin K interacts carefully with calcium in your body, in this case, assisting to regulate the levels of this mineral in your blood (Ballegooijen, 2017).

Vascular calcification– a procedure in which minerals like calcium are transferred in capillary, obstructing blood circulation gradually– prevails as we age. However getting the correct quantity of vitamin K might help prevent mineralization, warding off this procedure and keeping high blood pressure lower.

Lower risk of heart problem

Your danger of a cardiovascular event is carefully associated with the calcification of your capillary.

In fact, one meta-analysis that looked at 30 research studies found a 300– 400 percent increase in your risk of cardiovascular events with the existence of calcification on any arterial wall (Rennenberg, 2009).

However greater blood levels of the K1 type of vitamin K are related to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. [6]

What is Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding?

Vitamin K shortage bleeding or VKDB, occurs when children can not stop bleeding because their blood does not have sufficient Vitamin K to form a clot. The bleeding can happen anywhere on the within or outside of the body. When the bleeding takes place inside the body, it can be difficult to see. Commonly, a baby with VKDB will bleed into his/her intestinal tracts, or into the brain, which can lead to mental retardation and even death. Infants who do not get the vitamin K chance at birth can develop VKDB at any time up to 6 months of age. There are three types of VKDB, based upon the age of the child when the bleeding issues begin: early, classical and late. More information about these types is consisted of below.

Why are babies more likely to have vitamin K deficiency and to get VKDB?

All infants, despite sex, race, or ethnic background, are at higher threat for VKDB up until they start consuming routine foods, typically at age 4-6 months, and until the typical digestive tract bacteria begin making vitamin K. This is due to the fact that:

At birth, children have really little vitamin K saved in their bodies since just small amounts pass to them through the placenta from their moms.

The excellent bacteria that produce vitamin K are not yet present in the newborn’s intestinal tracts.

Breast milk consists of low amounts of vitamin K, so solely breastfed infants do not get enough vitamin K from the breast milk, alone.

What can I do to prevent my child from getting vitamin K deficiency and VKDB?

The bright side is that VKDB is easily avoided by offering children a vitamin K shot into a muscle in the thigh. One shot given just after birth will secure your baby from VKDB. In order to offer instant bonding and contact in between the newborn and mother, offering the vitamin K shot can be delayed as much as 6 hours after birth.

Is the Vitamin K shot safe?

Yes. Lots of studies have shown that vitamin K is safe when given to babies. To find out more about the safety of the vitamin K shot, please see our FAQ’s.

What might trigger infants to be deficient in vitamin K and have bleeding problems?

Some things can put babies at a greater threat for establishing VKDB. Infants at greater threat include:

  1. Babies who do not receive a vitamin K shot at birth. The risk is even higher if they are exclusively breastfed.
  2. Children whose moms used particular medications, like isoniazid or medicines to treat seizures. These drugs interfere with how the body uses vitamin K.
  3. Children who have liver disease; often they can not use the vitamin K their body stores.
  4. Babies who have diarrhea, celiac illness, or cystic fibrosis frequently have difficulty absorbing vitamins, including vitamin K, from the foods they eat.

How frequently are infants affected with vitamin K deficiency bleeding?

Considering that infants can be impacted up until they are 6 months old, doctor divide VKDB into 3 types; early, classical and late. The chart below assists explain these three various types.

Early and classical VKDB are more typical, happening in 1 in 60 to 1 in 250 newborns, although the danger is much higher for early VKDB among those babies whose mothers utilized particular medications during the pregnancy.

Late VKDB is rarer, taking place in 1 in 14,000 to 1 in 25,000 babies (1– 3).

Babies who do not receive a vitamin K shot at birth are 81 times most likely to establish late VKDB than babies who do get a vitamin K chance at birth. [7]

Causes of Vitamin K Shortage

Vitamin K deficiency can arise from the following:

  • Absence of vitamin K in the diet
  • A really low fat diet since vitamin K is best absorbed when eaten with some fat
  • Disorders that hinder fat absorption which hence decrease the absorption of vitamin K (such as clog of the bile ducts or cystic fibrosis)
  • Specific drugs, including antiseizure drugs, and some antibiotics
  • Usage of big amounts of mineral oil, which may reduce the absorption of vitamin K

Newborns are prone to vitamin K shortage because of the following:

  • Only small amounts of vitamin K pass from the mother to the fetus during pregnancy.
  • During the first few days after birth, the newborn’s intestine has not yet obtained germs to produce vitamin K.

Signs of Vitamin K Deficiency

The primary symptom of vitamin K shortage is bleeding (hemorrhage)– into the skin (triggering bruises), from the nose, from a wound, in the stomach, or in the intestine. In some cases bleeding in the stomach causes throwing up with blood. Blood might be seen in the urine or stool, or stools may be tarry black.

In newborns, lethal bleeding within or around the brain might take place.

Having a liver disorder increases the risk of bleeding, since thickening factors are made in the liver.

Vitamin K deficiency may also damage bones.

Diagnosis of Vitamin K Deficiency

Blood tests

Doctors presume vitamin K shortage when unusual bleeding occurs in individuals with conditions that put them at risk.

Blood tests to determine how quickly embolism are done to assist validate the diagnosis. Knowing just how much vitamin K people consume helps physicians translate results of these blood tests. Often the vitamin K level in the blood is measured.

Treatment of Vitamin K Deficiency

A vitamin K injection in the muscle is advised for all babies to reduce the danger of bleeding within the brain after shipment.

If vitamin K shortage is identified, vitamin K is usually taken by mouth or given by injection under the skin. If a drug is the cause, the dose of the drug is adjusted or extra vitamin K is given. [8]

Side Effects

Along with its necessary effects, a medicine might cause some unwanted impacts. Although not all of these negative effects might occur, if they do occur they might require medical attention.

Check with your medical professional as soon as possible if any of the following adverse effects take place:.

Less common

  • Decreased appetite
  • reduced movement or activity
  • difficulty in breathing
  • enlarged liver
  • basic body swelling
  • irritability
  • muscle tightness
  • paleness
  • yellow eyes or skin

Uncommon

  • Trouble in swallowing
  • quick or irregular breathing
  • lightheadedness or fainting
  • shortness of breath
  • skin rash, hives and/or itching
  • swelling of eyelids, face, or lips
  • tightness in chest
  • struggling breathing and/or wheezing

Unusual

  • Blue color or flushing or redness of skin
  • dizziness
  • quick and/or weak heartbeat
  • increased sweating
  • low high blood pressure (short-lived)

Some negative effects might happen that typically do not need medical attention. These adverse effects might go away throughout treatment as your body adapts to the medicine. Also, your healthcare professional may have the ability to inform you about ways to prevent or decrease a few of these side effects. Consult your health care expert if any of the following negative effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:.

  • Less common
  • Flushing of face
  • inflammation, discomfort, or swelling at location of injection
  • skin sores at location of injection (rare)
  • uncommon taste

Other side effects not noted might also take place in some clients. If you notice any other results, contact your healthcare professional. [9]

Possible Interactions

If you are presently being treated with any of the following medications, you need to not take vitamin K without very first speaking with your health care service provider.

Antibiotics– Prescription antibiotics, particularly those called cephalosporins, lower the absorption of vitamin K in the body. Using them for more than 10 days may decrease levels of vitamin K since these drugs kill not only harmful germs but likewise the germs that make vitamin K. People who currently have low levels of vitamin K, such as those who are malnourished, senior, or taking warfarin (Coumadin) are at higher threat. Cephalosporins consist of:.

  • Cefamandole (Mandol)
  • Cefoperazone (Cefobid)
  • Cefmetazole (Zefazone)
  • Cefotetan (Cefotan)

Phenytoin (Dilantin)– Phenytoin hinders the body’s ability to use vitamin K. Taking anticonvulsants (such as phenytoin) during pregnancy or while breastfeeding might reduce vitamin K in newborns.

Warfarin (Coumadin)– Vitamin K blocks the impacts of the blood-thinning medication warfarin, so that it doesn’t work. You must not take vitamin K, or consume foods consisting of high amounts of vitamin K, while you are taking warfarin. Talk to your doctor for particular dietary guidelines.

Orlistat (Xenical, Alli) and Olestra– Orlistat, a medication used for weight-loss, and olestra, a compound added to some foods, decreases the quantity of fat you body can take in. Because vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin, these medications might likewise reduce levels of vitamin K. The Food and Drug Administration now needs that vitamin K and other fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E) be contributed to food consisting of olestra. Physicians who prescribe orlistat generally suggest taking a multivitamin with these vitamins. If you ought to not be taking vitamin K, then you ought to prevent foods that contain olestra.

Cholesterol-lowering medications– Bile acid sequestrants, used to reduce cholesterol, reduce just how much fat your body soaks up and may also lower absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. If you take one of these drugs, your doctor may recommend a vitamin K supplement:.

  • Cholestyramine (Questran)
  • Colestipol (Colestid)
  • Colsevelam (Welchol) [10]

Threats

No tolerable upper limit has been figured out for vitamin K. Toxicity is uncommon and unlikely to arise from consuming foods containing vitamin K.

Nevertheless, taking any type of supplement can cause toxicity.

Vitamin K can engage with several common medications, consisting of blood-thinners, anticonvulsants, prescription antibiotics, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and weight-loss drugs.

Blood thinners, such as warfarin are used to prevent hazardous embolism that may obstruct blood flow to the brain or heart. They work by reducing or postponing vitamin K’s clotting ability. All of a sudden increasing or decreasing vitamin K intake can interfere with the impacts of these drugs. Keeping vitamin K consumption consistent from day to day can prevent these issues.

Anticonvulsants, if taken during pregnancy or while breastfeeding, can increase the risk of vitamin K shortage in a fetus or a newborn. Examples of anticonvulsants are phenytoin and dilantin.

Cholesterol-lowering medications interfere with fat absorption. Dietary fat is required for absorbing vitamin K, so people who are taking this medication may have a greater danger of deficiency.

Anybody who is taking any of these medications need to speak to their doctor about their vitamin K consumption.

The best way to make sure the body has sufficient nutrients is to take in a well balanced diet, with lots of vegetables and fruit. Supplements must just be utilized in case of shortage, and then, under medical supervision. [11]

Conclusion

Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop generally. Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for healthy bones and tissues. It also makes proteins for blood clot. If you don’t have enough vitamin K, you might bleed excessive.

Babies have very little vitamin K. They typically get a shot of vitamin K right after they are born.

If you take blood thinners, you require to be cautious about just how much vitamin K you get. You also need to be mindful about taking vitamin E supplements. Vitamin E can hinder how vitamin K works in your body. Ask your health care provider for recommendations about these vitamins.

There are different types of vitamin K. Many people get vitamin K from plants such as green vegetables, and dark berries. Germs in your intestines also produce small amounts of another kind of vitamin K. [12]

Referrals

  1. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/vitamin-k/
  2. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins-and-supplements/supplement-guide-vitamin-k
  3. https://examine.com/supplements/vitamin-k/#how-to-take
  4. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/foods-high-in-vitamin-k
  5. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-vitamin-k
  6. https://ro.co/health-guide/vitamin-k-benefits/
  7. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/vitamink/facts.html
  8. https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/disorders-of-nutrition/vitamins/vitamin-k-deficiency
  9. https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/vitamin-k-class-oral-route-parenteral-route/side-effects/drg-20069592
  10. https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/supplement/vitamin-k
  11. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/219867#risks
  12. https://medlineplus.gov/vitamink.html
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Serratiopeptidase (serratia e-15 protease, likewise known as serralysin, serrapeptase, serratiapeptase, serratia peptidase, serratio peptidase, or serrapeptidase), is a...